German philosopher, author of the Critique of Pure Reason. Five
proofs? In fact, Kant rejected three proofs of the existence of God, coming
up with a fourth himself: that God must exist because we all have an inborn
sense of moral right and wrong, which must have been put there by someone.
Perhaps Bulgakov simply preferred the number 5? Or wanted to make sure Woland's
proof was the more magical "seventh"?
Kant belongs to the same German Romantic period as Goethe (author of Faust) and Schubert, whose music
plays at the end of the novel.
Drawing by Charlotte Amalia Keyserling