Welcome to Middlebury College's

Social Capital Web-Based Resource Center

This web-site is motivated by increasing interest in the concept of social capital in the fields of environmental and international studies (ES and IS). Social Capital can be defined as "a dense network of social connections, developed for non-economic purposes, that enhance both political and economic efficiency" (Arrow). Across many disciplines, scholars and practitioners alike have come to realize that social capital can sharpen our understanding of the critical determinants of environmental and developmental outcomes.

This web-based resource center serves as an electronic resource for scholars and practitioners in the fields of environmental and international studies, with the goal to provide up-to-date information on social capital, the environment, and development for students and faculty at Middlebury College as well as the broader academic and development community.

General Links

The World Bank Group's PovertyNet http://www.worldbank.org/poverty/scapital/whatsc.htm
Robert Putnam's Saguaro Seminar http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/saguaro/
Civic Practices Network http://www.cpn.org/sections/tools/models/social_capital.html

Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community
A Book by Robert D. Putnam

Social Capital - Bridging Disciplines, Policies and Communities
International Conference
Social Capital Formation and Institutions for Sustainability
A Workshop conducted by Dr. Rod Dobell (University of Victoria)

Categorized Links

General Community-Based Natural Resources Management Resources

  International Workshop on Community-Based Natural Resource Management - World Bank http://www.worldbank.org/wbi/conatrem/
Sustainable Rural Development Information System (SRDIS): Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) Case Studies http://srdis.ciesin.org/cases/caselist.html
Future Harvest http://futureharvest.org/


  • International Institute for Environment & Development

  • People & the Planet Magazine (with all back issues) *


World Resources Institute http://www.wri.org/
International Development Exchange http://idex.org/

International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD)

  • IISDNet Communities & Livelihoods
  • IISD's Hot Topic of the Month


The Stewardship Path to Sustainable Natural Systems (in PDF format) http://www.aspeninst.org/eee/
The 8th Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property (IASCP)
Papers & abstracts

Overseas Development Institute

  • Overseas Development Institute Forest Policy & Environment Group *


Global Community Forestry Resources

  International Network of Forests & Communities

FAO - Community Forestry Home

  • Forests, Trees & People Programme

  • Forests, Trees & People Newsletter *

  • Selected papers from International Seminar on "Community Forestry at a Crossroads: Reflections & Future Directions in the Development of Community Forestry"
  • FTPP Publication


Overseas Development Institute Forest Policy & Environment Group * http://www.odifpeg.org.uk/
Center for International Forestry Research http://www.cgiar.org/cifor/
International Centre for Research in Agroforestry http://www.cgiar.org/icraf/

Global Community Fishery Resources


FAO - Fisheries Department Homepage

Fisheries Co-management http://www.co-management.org

International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management

Coastal Management (clickable map) http://www.coastalmanagement.com/
FISHNet World Bank


CGIAR Websites


  Center for International Forestry Research http://www.cgiar.org/cifor/
International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management http://www.cgiar.org/iclarm/
International Centre for Research in Agroforestry http://www.cgiar.org/icraf/
Integrated Natural Resource Management - (Center for International Forestry Research) http://inrm.cgiar.org/
Participatory Research & Gender Analysis (PRGA) Program * http://www.prgaprogram.org/
PRGA program at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT)


New England


Northeast Region - State Coastal Zone Management Programs
Provides links to each state in the Northeast's Coastal Zone Management Program. Quality of information on each site varies.


Northwest Atlantic Marine Alliance
Aiims to create links between fishermen, scientists, universities & the private sector to create an institutional framework ensuring environmental & economic stability in Northwest Atlantic fisheries. Mainly operates in Maine waters. Has a proposed structure for community-based fisheries management on its page. Information a bit difficult to find on the page, & most links are of little use.

  • Page includes a link to Gloucester Fishermen's Wives Association (GFWA) which addresses community issues in one of the Northeast's famed fishing towns (think "The Perfect Storm").





Fisheries Science Collaborations: The Critical Role of Community
By Douglas C. Wilson (from the Institute for Fisheries Management & Coastal Community Development, Denmark). An IT-aware paper that deals mostly with US & Canadian fisheries efforts, with a section on New England. Though touching on other parts of the world, it is a useful read in this section. Wilson addresses topics like Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK), local community environmental efforts, the Competing Constructions model, & Science as Community


Manomet Center for Conservation Sciences
The Manomet Center, among its various projects, is involved in marine fisheries conservation on the Atlantic Coast of the northeastern US, & forestry conservation in Maine. The center also has programs for civic communities. Forestry page is up-to-date, with information on the Sustainable Forestry Research & Information Center, & the Shifting Mosaic Project. Hyperlinked site (http://www.manometmaine.com/) provides detailed forestry information & contacts.

Massachusetts Community Forestry Council
Webpage is a simple presentation of facts - MCFC's mission statement, committees & agenda (for the present and the future). Contact information provided. Site has model letters to send to representatives & senators asking for their support of MCFC's Community Forestry Initiative for the 21st Century.
Vermont Land Trust
Among VLT's various land programs are community-based stewardship of land, & forest conservation with community involvement. VLT is an organization that provides legal & technical help to groups pursuing local conservation objectives. Page presents press releases, book summaries, its history and principles, and links to partner websites.
Rhode Island Tree Council
Educates interested citizens in tree stewardship (both from the public and private sector), aiming to create a volunteer-based "flourishing, forest ecosystem" in Rhode Island. Website is simple, but provides an idea of what RITC does, & contact information is available.
Northern Forest Alliance
Website provides general information & a detailed map of the 'Northern Forests'. Also supports an e-mail newsletter & a network of communities, & provides guides for sustainable forestry. Some links are still under development, but the site is well-hyperlinked & interactive.
Forest Watch
A 'watchdog' for public land in Vermont with programs to conserve & 'rewild' Vermont, to reform public land management, Eco-forestry, and a 'Forest Watch'. Site proposes ways to take action, & offers a library of sources, a photo gallery & an on-line forum.
New England Forestry Foundation
A non-profit organization that supports responsible forest management. Site has a clickable map of Foundation Forests across New England, RealVideo™ clips of the Pingree Forest Partnership, & a writeup of the North Quabbin Community Forestry Partnership. A good links page.
Vermont Urban & Community Forestry Program
Vermont's urban & community forestry initiative page is surprisingly informative. Page offers technical & management info, a newsletter, training/workshop information, links, & a section on a cost-share program funding trees for local communities. Some parts of site still under construction, but already a valuable resource.
Northeast Center for Urban & Community Forestry
The Northeast Center is a multi-sector partnership aiming to assist in research & foster community & other sector involvement in urban & community forestry through New England-New York area. A PDF format document of completed projects, a list of current projects & asection on municipal forest management can be found on website.
Maine Community Forestry Program
A very basic webpage with barest details of its program, listing contact information in most cases in place of actual online information. Regional links may be useful.

North America


Sustainable Northwest
An Oregon-based non-profit organization that looks to engage rural communities in economically & environmentally sustainable projects, to strengthen the sense of community. Has a variety of project summaries dealing with CBNRM & stewardship and a very useful links page. Part of the HFHC Partnership outlined below. Sign up for e-mail updates on the site.


Healthy Forests, Healthy Communities Partnership
"A rural communities collaborative creating market incentives for ecosystem management and forest restoration in the Pacific Northwest". Deals with creating ecosystem managed forests, & providing an environmentally sound market for products generated from these forests.


American Forests
The USA's oldest national citizen conservation organization. Click on Forest Policy on their website to get to the Forest Policy Center, which addresses recent issues in forest policy such as community based ecosystem management. Text well-hyperlinked. Be wary with American Forest Links page, as many links are outdated.


Conservation Based Development
Does not directly deal with community forestry but touches on many corollary issues such as community based forest stewardship. Offers real reportage from all over the world, community-based program building guides in its "Tool Box", newsletter type articles, a searchable database & a resource list. Could subscribe to e-mail updates & get contact information for community organizations across the USA.


USDA Forest Service - Cooperative Forestry
Has a mini-site on "National Programs" encompassing rural community assistance, stewardship & urban and community forestry initiatives. Information on this site is not phenomenal but offers good insight into US government efforts in the field of community-based sustainable forest management. Pages all quite well-hyperlinked to one another.


The National Urban & Community Forestry Advisory Council
NUCFAC's page offers a mission statement, which summarizes the shape urban/community forestry plans take in the West. Also has a copy of part of the Cooperative Forestry Act, an Action Plan for NUCFAC's efforts, annual reports from 1995 & cost-share grant project details. Very simple HTML based text format.


Mountain Association for Community Economic Development
Tries to provide resources to create a democratic & sustainable community in Kentucky and Central Appalachia. Sustainable communities page presents detailed community-building resources & links to external community-related websites. MACED also promises to have a wholly interactive forest resource model in the near future.


The Florida Coastal Management Program
Florida's Department for Community Affairs aims to coordinate various sectors in coastal management towards sustainability & coastal preservation. Simple HTML text on Community Assistance page is reasonably well hyperlinked, addressing community stewardship more than it does fishery.


Oceans Conservation - Fisheries & Oceans, Canada
(In French and English). With sections on integrated management & coastal conservation in Canada. Integrated management site has Canada's Oceans Act & a clickable map of regional community based initiatives. Also a highly detailed international CZM links page.


IISDNet Communities & Livelihoods - The International Institute for Sustainable Development
With many community-related projects & resources on its website - many of which are outside of North America, but some are specifically interesting, such as the Skownan First Nation (formerly Waterhen) Community Values Project. Site also holds general resources on building community based systems.

Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) Case Studies - SRDIS
The Sustainable Rural Development Information System (SRDIS) is a specialized on-line library with over 300 case studies & a sourcebook on participation & another on decentralization & local development. Also has indicators & country data. Maintained by Columbia University's Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) & the World Bank. The specific CBNRM case study list contains the following among over 100 papers (relevant to these subjects globally):
  • The Evolution of Government/Community Partnerships for Resource Management in Atlantic Canada
    Stephen Hawboldt and Jim Ellsworth
  • Community-Based Forest Management - Organizacion de Ejidos Productores Forestales de la Zona Maya (OEPFZM)
    Victoria Santos Jimenez, Rosa Ledesma Santos, Patricia Negreros Castillo
  • Facilitating Collaborative Planning in Hawaii's Natural Area Reserves
    Cynthia Josayma









Sustainable Communities Network
Website has sections on creating community, growing a sustainable economy, protecting natural resources & governing & living in a sustainable manner, which should all prove useful. Each section offers the viewer links to member organizations of the Network, reading lists & case studies.


KCFA Links - Kootenay Conference on Forest Alternatives
One of the best links pages for ecoforestry & community forestry in Canada & the USA (mainly the Pacific Northwest). Main website (http://www.kcfa.bc.ca/) provides useful information, including summaries on 4 KCFA organized community forests & a statement on the issue of tenure. Feedback welcome


World Resources Institute (WRI) Regional Resources - North America
Webpage presents environmental strategies, action plans, individual country environmental data, maps, indicators, & various case studies from Canada & the USA, including an article entitled "10 Steps on a Critical Path towards Sustainability in the Forest Sector".


International Network of Forests & Communities - North America
Offers a detailed policy & legislation history in the USA, Canada, & Mexico surrounding forestry. Each country case study describes community forestry efforts at national, provincial/state & community levels, & offers case study summaries. Managers welcome input, updates, & new links.

National Network of Forest Practitioners (NNFP)
(Under construction)

Latin America and the Caribean


Integrated Coastal Zone Management - Environmental Protection Agency, Guyana
Pretty basic, easy to read page with recommendations for integrated CZM, with a plan-of-action. Not much groundbreaking stuff here, but links page will prove handy, although some don't work too well.


Instituto Nacional de Ecología (INE) - Mexico
Website belongs to the National Ecology Institute of Mexico & mostly in Spanish (some texts with English version). INE is a part of SEMARNAP (Secretaría de Medio Ambiente, Recursos Naturales y Pesca - Secretariat of Environment, Natural Resources and Fish). Click on "Programas Sectoriales" & then on either "Programa de Medio Ambiente 1995-2000" or "Programa de Conservación de la Vida Silvestre y Diversificación Productiva en el Sector Rural 1997-2000". If all you want is the Mexican government's take on community management, then click "Estrategias, proyectos y acciones prioritarias", otherwise browse.


Assistance for Indigenous People of Eastern Bolivia (APCOB)
This website for APCOB's "Participative Project of Sustainable Management of Forests and Natural Resources" discusses projects in community forestry with indigenous peoples of Bolivia's Amazon, in three micro-regions. Se puede ver la página en español también (http://latinwide.com/apcob/). Simple text, easy-to-load.


International Network of Forests and Communities - Central and South America
Has an introduction to forest policy in Latin America, and links to particular country-specific sections (Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Guatemala and Perú). Introduces the legal context & policy history surrounding community forestry in each country, & also summarizes current community forestry projects in each. Open to all input regarding research, & are willing to add new things.


FTPP - FAO/SLU projects in South & Central America (Forests, Trees & People Program)
Jointly run by SLU Kontakt (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences) & CFU (Community Forestry Unit) of FAO.

  • Red Centroamericana de Información en Forestería Comunitaria -Panamá
    Website gradually developing, but promises to be a good source for community forestry issues, & sharing information & resources over the web. Frames a little difficult to use, & a bit slow to load.
  • Programa Bosques, Árboles y Comunidades Rurales - FTPP Bolivia
    (Only in Spanish - Solamente en español). Not designed to be aesthetically pleasing, but provides some sort of information relating to FTPP's projects in Bolivia, its aims, major research themes & a course in community forestry. Many links are down, but pages can be accessed if you're inventive with filenames, or if you access them from elsewhere with valid links.
  • Programa Bosques, Árboles y Comunidades Rurales - FTPP Perú
    (Español, Français - sous elaboration, English - under construction). Sections on Community forestry (with a case study from Bolivia), main research themes, published & broadcast materials, methods of action, contacts & a map of Latin America showing countries with projects. Loaded with goodies & works well (except for country details).











Capacitación forestal a cooperativas comunitarias campesinas - Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica
(Only in Spanish - Solamente en español). A short article by M. Fonseca G. & Dora Rodriguez A., regarding a sort of historical approach to Costa Rica's forests & addressing the need for community participation in forestry in the future.


Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) Case Studies - SRDIS
The Sustainable Rural Development Information System (SRDIS) is a specialized on-line library with over 300 case studies & a sourcebook on participation & another on decentralization & local development. It also has indicators & country data. SRDIS is maintained by Columbia University's Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) & the World Bank. The specific CBNRM case study list contains the following among over 100 papers (relevant to these subjects globally)

  • Creating Conditions for Community-Based Small-Scale Fisheries Management in the Caribbean
    Patrick McConney's case study shows how creating a community-based system must go through phases, with an initial stage & a change phase (including research and legislation), & finally discusses the final outcome & lessons learned in Barbados. McConney works for the Fisheries Division of the Ministry for Agriculture & Rural Development, Barbados.
  • Community-based natural resource management in the Bay Islands, Honduras
    Andrew F. Seidl, adopts the same standardized World Bank approach in his paper regarding all types of CBNRM in Honduras' Bay Islands.
  • Involving Civil Society: The Demonstration Projects Subprogram of the Pilot Program to Conserve the Brazilian Rainforest
    Rinaldo César Mancin, from Brazil's Ministry of Environment, identifies the baseline situation in the Brazilian Amazon & discusses a pilot program, the role of civil society & interaction between them & the government. He also presents a similar treatment of outcomes & lessons learned.
  • Communities & Management of Natural Resources of the Cuban Archipelago: Case Studies in Coastal & Mountain Ecosystems
    René P. Capote López & L. Menéndez, both of the Environment Agency (AMA) of Cuba's Ministry for Science Technology and Environment (CITMA), present case studies of the Sabana-Camagüey archipelago & the Sierra del Rosario Biosphere Reserve. These studies involve low mountain ecosystems, & deal more with preservation than community forestry, but look at the role government & international actors can play in bringing about CBNRM.


















Coastal & Fisheries Co-Management: A Bibliography
Maria Hauck and Aadila Munshi of the University of Cape Town (South Africa) have compiled a bibliography of paper sources which should prove useful, not just in dealing with Latin America, but globally.


Central and Eastern Europe

  World Bank: Environmentally & Socially Sustainable Development - Europe & Central Asia
Page tackling sustainable rural development, environmental protection, & social development in Europe & Central Asia offers relevant information. Navigable maps, useful project summaries (HTML abstracts and PDF documents), "good practices" pages, & Bank strategies & publications available. Be sure to use the navigation tools at the bottom of the page for additional pages of information.


Newsletter report:

Baikal Watch - a project of Earth Island Institute
A non-profit organization dedicated to conserving Lake Baikal & its environs. Though page is conservation-based, rather than community-action based, some of its methods, & the methods of NGOs it sponsors can be relevant. Also look at the Earth Island website for a community-based project on the Aral Sea (no website). You might find the links here handy too.


Environmental Assessment in Countries in Transition
Summarized online book edited by E. Bellinger, N. Lee, C. George & A. Paduret, with chapters on environmental impact assessment in former Soviet Union, Kazakhstan, Croatia & Poland. Some conservation policy history is presented, & a possible legislative framework for the future is also dealt with in some cases.


Friends of the Earth-Estonia (FoE-Estonia)
A non-profit environmental NGO, also serves as an umbrella organization for smaller NGOs. Website presents summaries of its activities with links to relevant documents. Contacts available. A more detailed version of the website can be viewed in Estonian (follow the link).
World Resources Institute - Regional Resources: Europe and Russia
Site offers a clickable matrix of European & Russian environmental strategies & action plans, detailed country environmental data in PDF format, a regional overview of Russian frontier forests, detailed PDF watershed maps, & three topical articles on Russia & forest management.

Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) Case Studies - SRDIS
The Sustainable Rural Development Information System (SRDIS) is a specialized on-line library with over 300 case studies & a sourcebook on participation & another on decentralization & local development. Also has indicators & country data. Maintained by Columbia University's Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) & World Bank. CBNRM case study list contains the following among over 100 papers (relevant to these subjects globally):

  • National Environment Action Plan for Sustainable Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan Center
    Ye. Tyrtyshnyy
  • Sustainable Management of Timber Resources in Kyrgyzstan
    Abdybek Asanaliev
  • Environment Protection as a Tool for Increasing Community Activism & Citizen's Participation (An Outline) - Poland
    Jacek Goledzinowski
  • Development & Improvement of Community-Based Environmental Management Practices in the Russian Federation
    Vladislav Fourman
  • Transition in the Danube Delta Fisheries Management
    Ion Navodaru










Taiga Rescue Network (TRN)
"An international network of Non Governmental organizations, Indigenous Peoples & Nations working for the protection & sustainable use of the Boreal Forests." TRN's website offers program summaries & a history & platform section, regular news updates on conservation of the taiga & detailed list of Russian 'hotspots'. TRN-a Scandinavian organization- includes Russian taiga in its scope of interest.
Caspian Environment Programme (CEP)
Goal is to ensure environmentally sustainable development & management of Caspian resources, & works in Azerbaijan, Iran, Russia, Kazakhstan & Turkmenistan. CEP has an ICZM-type organization & contacts are provided.
SD Gateway - Public Participation
Check out the 'Baltic' & 'Eastern & Central Europe' related links on this page dealing with increasing public participation. SD Gateway also offers links to other sections of its own site & to external sites that development practitioners will find useful.
Forest.ru - All About Russian Forests
An enthusiastic presentation of an indigenous Russian NGO community effort to address deforestation in Russia. Basic information & policy/legislation history available. A sustainable forestry section is referred to, but the links don't hold up. Site's sheer enthusiasm for the subject makes up for occasional lack of hyperlink cohesion & grammatically-seamless English.
International Network of Forests & Communities - Europe and Russia
You should find contacts to grassroots & community organizations in Europe & Russia. Country profiles are under development, & should be up soon. Other regions are much better developed. Open to all input regarding research, & willing to add new things to site, especially if you offer links & pointers.



International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) - Forestry
asy-to-navigate site dealing w/ forestry practices & related research in the Hindu Kush-Himalayas region. General sections on mountain forestry & specific sections on community forestry in Bhutan & Nepal. Downloadable files, & excellent links

Balancing Acts: Community-Based Forest Management & National Law in Asia & the Pacific
Online book by Owen J. Lynch & Kirk Talbott w/ Marshall S. Berdan, w/ special emphasis on "national laws & policies affecting forests & forest-dwellers in India, Indonesia, Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, & Papua New Guinea" (from the foreword). Click "Read It" button located by ordering information at the bottom of page. World Resources Institute (WRI) webpage also has other online books that surfers may find interesting.
Overseas Development Institute - Forest Policy & Environment Group - Rural Development Forestry Network
Site has a relevant paper on Nepal and an archive of past papers: full documents that can be viewed in PDF format (Acrobat Reader). Some links are a bit shaky, but especially relevant to the topic of community forestry worldwide
World Commission on Forests & Sustainable Development
WCFSD introduces an idea of measuring the value of forests. Has a link to Asia hearings, all in PDF format, parts of which can be useful for the issue of community forestry in South Asia. Site also contains RealVideo coverage of a speech by M.S. Swaminathan, one of India's foremost thinkers in sustainable development.
The CHIPKO movement
A paper on the quintessential tree-huggers. This movement is more a forest conservation movement than a community forestry movement, but its social mobilization is legendary. The paper is in simple text, and points to good resource books on the issue.
NepalNet - Forestry Articles in Nepal
Page has a list of links to articles & papers on community forestry, among other conservation & forestry issues in Nepal. Format quite simple, w/ one page full of links from hyperlinked article titles. Also has links to other online resources.
European Commission Delegation to India, Nepal and Bhutan
Stories on EC-funded community forestry programs in the South Asia region. It also describes similar community-based efforts by large & small NGOs in the region. (Browser needs to support frames & Java).
International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management
Scroll to ICLARM's Policy Research and Impact Assessment Program (PRIAP), & click to see project summaries of community fishing (esp. in Bangladesh), many of which will prove useful to development practitioners. Format is pretty basic. Site also has a collection of rather well written research stories from the field
A Study of International Fisheries Research
A report prepared by the World Bank, UNDP, EU Commission & FAO on the state of fisheries research, especially in developing countries. Interesting sections on small-scale fisheries & fishery management techniques. Document is about 50-60 pages of formatted text in easy to read HTML format.
Rice-Fish Project (International Development Research Center)
An introduction to Rice-Fish agriculture/aquaculture, a section highlighting methods, benefits & constraints, & research results from ICLARM in Bangladesh and projects for AFSSRN in South East Asia. Webpage clearly summarizes an inexpensive, low-risk cultivation system that aids farmers in developing countries. (Also in French)
International Symposium on Women in Asian Fisheries
Page is a write-up of a Symposium on the "highly significant but undervalued" role of women in Asian fisheries. ICLARM & CARE ran the conference with presenters from South Asia & South East Asia. Though info is basic, more info to gain from contact addresses.
The IFRI Program
Program does not concentrate on either Community Forestry or South Asia, but has extensive list of publications, several of which are related to community forestry practices in South Asia & abstracts can be viewed online. Contact provided to buy whole paper. Useful links to suit personal/research interests.
Regional Community Forestry Training Center (RECOFTC)
FAO's Asia-Pacific Facilitator for the Forests, Trees & People Program (FTPP). Website has links to courses, symposia & projects it is involved in. Relatively easy to navigate, but the Thai link is hard to view. RECOFTC clearly addresses the notion of community participation in resource management to better rural development & sustainable forests. Website yields useful field projects. Offers an e-mail Asia-Pacific Community Forestry Newsletter
MekongInfo: Regional Information System on Participatory Natural Resource Management
An initiative to incorporate the use of IT to deal w/ problems of unsustainable land use in Mekong Basin. Site has a resource gallery, w/ newsletters from Development & Forestry Studies, & deals with social capital issues such as conflict management in community-based projects. If browser is equipped, can be read in Cambodian, Laotian, Thai or Vietnamese!! Also has a link to Will Allen's NRM Changelinks at Massey Univ., NZ, which is super-useful
International Center for Research in AgroForestry (ICRAF) - South East Asia
Based in Indonesia, w/ branches in the Philippines & w/ MekongInfo in Thailand, under a Nairobi-based parent organization (ICRAF). Site has resources mainly dealing with agroforestry, rather than community forestry, but addresses similar development issues like building human & institutional resources, the Alternatives to Slash-and-Burn (ASB) initiative, national policy constraints & providing options to farmers for land management.
The Philippine Partnership for the Development of Human Resources in Rural Areas (PhilDHRRA)
A network of over 64 Philippine NGOs "involved in appropriate technology, income generation, community organizing, education & training of grassroots leaders, agricultural extension, primary health care, cooperatives development, integration of gender & environment concerns & advocacy for agrarian reform". Main goals: creating a development environment, developing alternative economic & social models & bolstering NGO capability. Page deals w/ varied programs such as agrarian reform, upland management, marine reform for rural development, institution building, governance & local democracy & human resource development. Easy-to-navigate, high-graphic intro page.
International Development Exchange (IDEX) - Asia Projects
A small organization in the US that supports NGOs & POs (People's Organizations) in the Philippines, Bangladesh & India. The Community Fishery and Fish Trading Projects based in the Philippines - addressing issues of cooperatives & community building - are written-up here. Site's treatment of topic is very basic, but it provides good summaries of projects, & links page may be useful to researchers. Summaries of many community-based development projects not directly related to either fishery or forestry also available.
Social Forestry Support Programme (Vietnam)
Seven forestry faculties in Vietnam, w/ Swiss cooperation run this program, dedicated to "a participatory approach in social forestry research". Features a section on gender in social forestry with a hyperlinked source (UNCSTD Gender Advisory Board), & a somewhat helpful links page. Site also linked to MekongInfo's Forum on Changing Learning & Education in Forestry.
Community Involvement in Forest Management (World Conservation Union - IUCN)
A general discussion on the need to involve communities in environmental policy w/ increasing democratization & decentralization of policy-making. Special report on Southeast Asia available. Contacts for whole East Asia region. Articles have links to highly relevant external sites

CIFOR - Center for Integrated Forestry Research
Based in Indonesia. Website deals w/ research, publications (Newsletters, papers, etc.), an especially interesting section called "Adaptive Co-management of Forests" (click on "Criteria & Indicators), a calendar w/ children's views of the forest, & links page. Also linked to CIFOR sponsored program- Integrated Natural Resource Management (INRM), which is halfway done, but holds plenty of potential
A guide to the literature on traditional community-based fishery management in the Asia-Pacific tropics.
FAO Fisheries Circular No. 869. FAO 1994. Rome. 114p. (For copies free of charge please contact by email: rolf.willman@fao.org)
Other similar document available at (http://www.fao.org/sids/docs-e.htm). Scroll down to fishery or forestry section. Most available free of charge.

Sustainable Development Alternatives for Mangrove Forests
Page has two sections, one on Silvofisheries (integrating mangroves and aquaculture) & another on Thailand's Community forest project, involving fishermen saving mangroves. This site is very issue-specific but provides an excellent case-study, including social capital issues such as group savings & grassroots organization.
Review of the Fishery Conflict in Stung Treng
This article on a Cambodian website is a historical account of a Cambodian fishery conflict, making the case for a community-based fishery system, which is more responsible & sustainable than individual or commercial fishing.
Principles For Community-Based Marine Conservation in Melanesia
Results from an Analysis by three Biodiversity Conservation Network (BCN) Projects, in Indonesia, Fiji & the Solomon Islands. 12 out of 39 factors leading to marine conservation are identified as "community factors". Each factor is defined & discussed. It's also worth taking a look at the BCN homepage from a link at the bottom of the page, because there are several related projects/sites there.


South China Sea Virtual Library
Prof. David Rosenberg (Middlebury College) has compiled an online resource of development, environment & security issues in the South China Sea. Page has links to APEC sites, the China Fishery homepage, Network of Aquaculture Centers in Asia-Pacific
Community Based Natural Resource Management - An IDRC Program initiative for Asia
(Also in French) Canada's International Development Research Centre provides information on its CBNRM program in Asia on this site, with subsites relating to general CBNRM information, objectives, a detailed project list, a developing archive of documents, & especially relevant links
Reprints from the Fisheries Co-Management Project
Few PDF files - essential bibliography to theory & region specific examples.
Co-Management Bibliography
Over 100 sources (mostly paper and some electronic) that practitioners may want to refer to

Sub-Saharan Africa

  International Network of Forests & Communities - Africa
Click on Africa on the map. Find contacts to grassroots & community organizations in Africa. Africa country profiles are under development, & should be up soon. All other regions are much better developed. Open to all input regarding research, & willing to add new things to their site, especially if you offer links & pointers.
International Development Exchange (IDEX) - Africa Projects
Page has a summary of its projects in Africa, some of which are relevant to this resource: Anchovy curing (Ghana), Women's fishing (Ghana), & horticulture (Zimbabwe).
FAO Community Forestry
Click on either West Africa or East Africa. The West Africa site is very basic, while the East Africa site is relatively well-developed, with a link to Forest Action Network (FAN), which is FTPP's base in Kenya. The site provides many contacts for further information in each region. Publications available.
Forest Action Network (FAN)- FTPP Kenya
An impressive page, addressing issues usually not dealt with together on webpages, such as central & decentralized control, customary & statutory rights, modern & endogenous knowledge, conflict resolution, gender issues, & case studies across East Africa. A link to its own FTPP Tanzania site, & a download on recommendations on collaborative forest management to Uganda. Some links are down.

Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) Case Studies - SRDIS
The Sustainable Rural Development Information System (SRDIS) is a specialized on-line library with over 300 case studies and a sourcebook on participation & another on decentralization and local development. It also has indicators and country data. SRDIS is maintained by Columbia University's Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) & the World Bank. The specific CBNRM case study list contains the following among over 100 papers (relevant to these subjects globally):

  • Community Forest Ownership: Key to Sustainable Forest Resource Management. The Gambian Experience
    Foday Bojang and Dominique Reeb, Forestry Department, Banjul, The Gambia
  • Artisanal Fishing Sustainable Development Project in the Rio Grande de Buba, Guinea-Bissau: An Example of Fish Stock Co-Management at the Local Level
    Philippe Tous (Also in French)
  • Community-Based Natural Resource Management: Case Study of Fisheries and Forests in Malawi
    W. M. Kasweswe Mwafongo
  • Forest Policy Changes in Tanzania: Towards Community Participation in Forest Management
    Vincent B.M.S. Kihiyo, Sokoine University of Agriculture
  • Sustainable Community Based Management of the Kariba Fishery of the Zambian Side
    E. M. Syampaku













ALCOM, Aquatic Resource Management for Local Communities
An FAO-executed program that deals with issues such as small-scale fisheries & integrated irrigation-aquaculture in southern & eastern Africa. Goal: to enhance smallholder output through improved resource management. Site contains many databases, summaries of programs & projects, archived newsletters, list of publications, contacts & links. Make sure you check out their maps. Site is easy to read, & has mirrored sites in Zimbabwe & Rome.
Policy that works for forests & people - Publications from IIED's Forestry & Land Use Program
Page contains 2 case studies specifically on Africa & 3 on global issues. Scroll down to No.4 Ghana & No.5 Zimbabwe for forestry case studies dealing w/ these countries. Nos.7-9 deal w/ international changes in forestry policy & NGOs. Africa-specific articles are summarized policy history, & future predictions & recommendations. Contacts for authors are provided.
CAMPFIRE - Communal Areas Management Program for Indigenous Resources
A Zimbabwean organization that tries to involve rural communities in conservation & development efforts, dealing w/ stewardship of natural resources. Especially topical to the issue at hand is 'Resource Management' link. French & Spanish versions are available. Links page seems down, but has an appealing page w/ suitable southern African motifs.
Coastal Management Office - Department of Environmental Affairs & Tourism (South Africa)
Page is a South African government resource on Coastal Zone Management (CZM). Tackles issues such as economic inequality & activity, & potential value of coastal resources. Provides careful outline of coastal management, policy & legal history, & a detailed links page. Easy to navigate, but GIF images may take a while to load.
The Secretariat For Eastern African Coastal Area Management (SEACAM)
Site deals more with Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) than community fishery, but there is a significant overlap. This webpage presents its ICZM projects & a list of publications available at no cost. Image-rich publications page is a bit slow-to-load. SEACAM's site offers links to conferences, databases & other sites.
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If you have any comments, suggestions or inputs, please contact: qnguyen@middlebury.edu